首页 > 系统运维 > LNMP安装配置指南
您的足迹
  • 你没有浏览过任何文章或者你没有开启cookies。

LNMP安装配置指南

nginx

Nginx (“engine x”) 是一个高性能的 HTTP 和反向代理服务器,也是一个 IMAP/POP3/SMTP 代理服务器。 Nginx 是由 Igor Sysoev 为俄罗斯访问量第二的 Rambler.ru 站点开发的,它已经在该站点运行超过三年了。Igor 将源代码以类BSD许可证的形式发布。

1.环境:

Centos 5.6 x86_64bit ,nginx 1.0.11+php 5.2.17+mysql 5.1.60

其他所有软件均用目前为止最新稳定版,截止2011/12/24

2.安装相关开源程序:

LANG=C
yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ autoconf libjpeg libjpeg-devel libpng libpng-devel freetype freetype-devel libxml2 libxml2-devel zlib zlib-devel glibc glibc-devel glib2 glib2-devel bzip2 bzip2-devel ncurses ncurses-devel curl curl-devel e2fsprogs e2fsprogs-devel krb5 krb5-devel libidn libidn-devel openssl openssl-devel openldap openldap-devel nss_ldap openldap-clients openldap-servers ImageMagick-devel

3.安装mysql

tar zxvf mysql-5.1.60.tar.gz
cd mysql-5.1.60
./configure  --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --localstatedir=/data/mysql --with-comment=Source --with-mysqld-user=mysql --without-debug --with-big-tables --with-charset=utf8 --with-collation=utf8_general_ci --with-extra-charsets=all --with-pthread --enable-static --enable-thread-safe-client --with-client-ldflags=-all-static --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --enable-assembler --with-plugins=all --without-ndb-debug
make 
make install 
cd ../
useradd mysql -d /data/mysql -s /sbin/nologin
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe & 
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u root password 'DI2n=Yq4'  
cd /usr/local/mysql/
chown -R root.mysql .
chown -R mysql /data/mysql/
cp share/mysql/my-huge.cnf /etc/my.cnf
cp share/mysql/mysql.server /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld
chmod 755 /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld 
/etc/init.d/mysqld status
chkconfig --add mysqld
cd /usr/local/mysql/bin/
for i in *;do ln -s /usr/local/mysql/bin/$i /usr/bin/$i;done
cd /root

4.安装php-cgi及相关插件

tar zxvf libiconv-1.14.tar.gz
cd libiconv-1.14/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local
make
make install
cd ../

tar jxvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.bz2  
cd libmcrypt-2.5.8/
./configure --prefix=/usr
make
make install
/sbin/ldconfig
cd libltdl/
./configure --enable-ltdl-install
make
make install
cd ../../

tar zxvf mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
cd mhash-0.9.9.9/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.la /usr/lib/libmcrypt.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.a /usr/lib/libmhash.a
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.la /usr/lib/libmhash.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so /usr/lib/libmhash.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1
ln -s /usr/local/bin/libmcrypt-config /usr/bin/libmcrypt-config

tar zxvf mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
cd mcrypt-2.6.8/
/sbin/ldconfig
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

tar jxvf php-5.2.17.tar.bz2 
gzip -cd php-5.2.17-fpm-0.5.14.diff.gz |patch -d php-5.2.17 -p1
cd php-5.2.17-
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/php --with-config-file-path=/usr/local/php/etc --with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql --with-mysqli=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_config --with-iconv-dir=/usr/local --with-freetype-dir --with-jpeg-dir --with-png-dir --with-zlib --with-libxml-dir=/usr --enable-xml --disable-rpath --enable-discard-path --enable-safe-mode --enable-bcmath --enable-shmop --enable-sysvsem --enable-inline-optimization --with-curl --with-curlwrappers --enable-mbregex --enable-fastcgi --enable-fpm --enable-force-cgi-redirect --enable-mbstring --with-mcrypt --with-gd --enable-gd-native-ttf --with-openssl --with-mhash --enable-pcntl --enable-sockets --with-ldap --with-ldap-sasl --with-xmlrpc --enable-zip --enable-soap
make ZEND_EXTRA_LIBS='-liconv'
make install
cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/php/etc/php.ini
cd ../

tar jxvf eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2
cd eaccelerator-0.9.6.1/
/usr/local/php/bin/phpize
./configure --enable-eaccelerator=shared --with-php-config=/usr/local/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
cd PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2/
/usr/local/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/php/bin/php-config --with-pdo-mysql=/usr/local/mysql
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf ImageMagick.tar.gz
cd ImageMagick-6.5.1-2/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf imagick-2.3.0.tgz
cd imagick-2.3.0/
/usr/local/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../

5. 配置并启用插件 :
#在php.ini在添加如下:
extension_dir = “/usr/local/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/”
[eAccelerator]
extension=”eaccelerator.so”
eaccelerator.shm_size=”32″
eaccelerator.cache_dir=”/tmp/eaccelerator”
eaccelerator.enable=”1″
eaccelerator.optimizer=”1″
eaccelerator.check_mtime=”1″
eaccelerator.log_file =”/tmp/eaccelerator/eaccelerator_log”
eaccelerator.debug=”0″
eaccelerator.filter=””
eaccelerator.shm_max=”0″
eaccelerator.shm_ttl=”0″
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period=”0″
eaccelerator.shm_only=”0″
eaccelerator.compress=”1″
eaccelerator.compress_level=”9″

#extension=”memcache.so”
extension=”pdo_mysql.so”
extension = “imagick.so”

#zend_optimizer.optimization_level=15
#zend_extension=”/usr/local/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/ZendOptimizer.so”

再查找output_buffering = Off
修改为output_buffering = On

再查找; cgi.fix_pathinfo=0
修改为cgi.fix_pathinfo=0,防止Nginx文件类型错误解析漏洞。

6.创建php-fpm配置文件(php-fpm是为PHP打的一个FastCGI管理补丁,可以平滑变更php.ini配置而无需重启php-cgi):
在/usr/local/php/etc/目录中创建php-fpm.conf文件:
rm -f /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf

输入以下内容(如果您安装 Nginx + PHP 用于程序调试,请将以下的<value name=”display_errors”>0</value>改为<value name=”display_errors”>1</value>,以便显示PHP错误信息,否则,Nginx 会报状态为500的空白错误页):

vi /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf

内容如下:

 

<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<configuration>

  All relative paths in this config are relative to php's install prefix

  <section name="global_options">

    Pid file
    <value name="pid_file">/usr/local/php/logs/php-fpm.pid</value>

    Error log file
    <value name="error_log">/usr/local/php/logs/php-fpm.log</value>

    Log level
    <value name="log_level">notice</value>

    When this amount of php processes exited with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS ...
    <value name="emergency_restart_threshold">10</value>

    ... in a less than this interval of time, a graceful restart will be initiated.
    Useful to work around accidental curruptions in accelerator's shared memory.
    <value name="emergency_restart_interval">1m</value>

    Time limit on waiting child's reaction on signals from master
    <value name="process_control_timeout">5s</value>

    Set to 'no' to debug fpm
    <value name="daemonize">yes</value>

  </section>

  <workers>

    <section name="pool">

      Name of pool. Used in logs and stats.
      <value name="name">default</value>

      Address to accept fastcgi requests on.
      Valid syntax is 'ip.ad.re.ss:port' or just 'port' or '/path/to/unix/socket'
      <value name="listen_address">127.0.0.1:9000</value>

      <value name="listen_options">

        Set listen(2) backlog
        <value name="backlog">-1</value>

        Set permissions for unix socket, if one used.
        In Linux read/write permissions must be set in order to allow connections from web server.
        Many BSD-derrived systems allow connections regardless of permissions.
        <value name="owner"></value>
        <value name="group"></value>
        <value name="mode">0666</value>
      </value>

      Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers.
      <value name="php_defines">
        <value name="sendmail_path">/usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i</value>
        <value name="display_errors">0</value>
      </value>

      Unix user of processes
      <value name="user">www</value>

      Unix group of processes
      <value name="group">www</value>

      Process manager settings
      <value name="pm">

        Sets style of controling worker process count.
        Valid values are 'static' and 'apache-like'
        <value name="style">static</value>

        Sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be served.
        Equivalent to Apache MaxClients directive.
        Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment in original php.fcgi
        Used with any pm_style.
        <value name="max_children">128</value>

        Settings group for 'apache-like' pm style
        <value name="apache_like">

          Sets the number of server processes created on startup.
          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
          <value name="StartServers">20</value>

          Sets the desired minimum number of idle server processes.
          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
          <value name="MinSpareServers">5</value>

          Sets the desired maximum number of idle server processes.
          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
          <value name="MaxSpareServers">35</value>

        </value>

      </value>

      The timeout (in seconds) for serving a single request after which the worker process will be terminated
      Should be used when 'max_execution_time' ini option does not stop script execution for some reason
      '0s' means 'off'
      <value name="request_terminate_timeout">0s</value>

      The timeout (in seconds) for serving of single request after which a php backtrace will be dumped to slow.log file
      '0s' means 'off'
      <value name="request_slowlog_timeout">0s</value>

      The log file for slow requests
      <value name="slowlog">logs/slow.log</value>

      Set open file desc rlimit
      <value name="rlimit_files">65535</value>

      Set max core size rlimit
      <value name="rlimit_core">0</value>

      Chroot to this directory at the start, absolute path
      <value name="chroot"></value>

      Chdir to this directory at the start, absolute path
      <value name="chdir"></value>

      Redirect workers' stdout and stderr into main error log.
      If not set, they will be redirected to /dev/null, according to FastCGI specs
      <value name="catch_workers_output">yes</value>

      How much requests each process should execute before respawn.
      Useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries.
      For endless request processing please specify 0
      Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS
      <value name="max_requests">1024</value>

      Comma separated list of ipv4 addresses of FastCGI clients that allowed to connect.
      Equivalent to FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment in original php.fcgi (5.2.2+)
      Makes sense only with AF_INET listening socket.
      <value name="allowed_clients">127.0.0.1</value>

      Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH
      All $VARIABLEs are taken from current environment
      <value name="environment">
        <value name="HOSTNAME">$HOSTNAME</value>
        <value name="PATH">/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin</value>
        <value name="TMP">/tmp</value>
        <value name="TMPDIR">/tmp</value>
        <value name="TEMP">/tmp</value>
        <value name="OSTYPE">$OSTYPE</value>
        <value name="MACHTYPE">$MACHTYPE</value>
        <value name="MALLOC_CHECK_">2</value>
      </value>

    </section>

  </workers>

</configuration>

7. 启动:
启动php-cgi进程,监听127.0.0.1的9000端口,进程数为128(如果服务器内存小于3GB,可以只开启64个进程),用户为www:
ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/php/sbin/php-fpm start
注:/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm还有其他参数,包括:start|stop|quit|restart|reload|logrotate,修改php.ini后不重启php-cgi,重新加载配置文件使用reload
8.安装nginx

/usr/sbin/groupadd www
/usr/sbin/useradd -g www www
mkdir -p /data/htdocs/www
chmod +w /data/htdocs/www
chown -R www:www /data/htdocs/www
rm -f /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
vi /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
/usr/local/php/sbin/php-fpm start

tar zxvf pcre-8.12.tar.gz
cd pcre-8.12/
./configure
make && make install
cd ../

chmod +w /data/logs
chown -R www:www /data1/logs

tar zxvf nginx-1.0.11.tar.gz 
cd nginx-1.0.11/
./configure --user=www --group=www --prefix=/usr/local/nginx --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_ssl_module
make && make install
cd ../

9.创建Nginx配置文件
在/usr/local/nginx/conf/目录中创建nginx.conf文件:

user  www www;

worker_processes 2;

error_log  /data/logs/nginx_error.log  crit;

pid        /usr/local/nginx/nginx.pid;

#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process. 
worker_rlimit_nofile 65535;

events 
{
  use epoll;
  worker_connections 65535;
}

http 
{
  include       mime.types;
  default_type  application/octet-stream;

  #charset  gb2312;

  server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
  client_header_buffer_size 32k;
  large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;
  client_max_body_size 8m;

  sendfile on;
  tcp_nopush     on;

  keepalive_timeout 60;

  tcp_nodelay on;

  fastcgi_connect_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_send_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_read_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_buffer_size 64k;
  fastcgi_buffers 4 64k;
  fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k;
  fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 128k;

  gzip on;
  gzip_min_length  1k;
  gzip_buffers     4 16k;
  gzip_http_version 1.0;
  gzip_comp_level 2;
  gzip_types       text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
  gzip_vary on;

  #limit_zone  crawler  $binary_remote_addr  10m;

  server
  {
    listen       80;
    server_name  elearning.vemic.com;
    index index.html index.htm index.php;
    root  /data/htdocs/www;

    #limit_conn   crawler  20;    

    location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
    {      
      #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
      fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
      fastcgi_index index.php;
      include fcgi.conf;
    }

    location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$
    {
      expires      30d;
    }

    location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
    {
      expires      1h;
    }    

    log_format  access  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
              '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
              '"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for';
    access_log  /data1/logs/access.log  access;
      }

  server
  {
    listen  80;
    server_name  status.elearning.vemic.com;

    location / {
    stub_status on;
    access_log   off;
    }
  }
}

在/usr/local/nginx/conf/目录中创建fcgi.conf文件:

fastcgi_param  GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_SOFTWARE    nginx;

fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_TYPE       $content_type;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_LENGTH     $content_length;

fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME    $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_URI        $request_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_URI       $document_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;

fastcgi_param  REMOTE_ADDR        $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_PORT        $remote_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_ADDR        $server_addr;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;

# PHP only, required if PHP was built with --enable-force-cgi-redirect
fastcgi_param  REDIRECT_STATUS    200;

启动
ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx

10.优化linux内核并增加开机启动

vi /etc/sysctl.conf

# Add
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 65536
net.core.netdev_max_backlog =  32768
net.core.somaxconn = 32768

net.core.wmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_max = 16777216
net.core.wmem_max = 16777216

net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_syn_retries = 2

net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
#net.ipv4.tcp_tw_len = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1

net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 94500000 915000000 927000000
net.ipv4.tcp_max_orphans = 3276800

#net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
#net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 120
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024  65535

增加nginx php开机启动:

ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/php/sbin/php-fpm start
/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx

11.编写每天定时切割Nginx日志的脚本
创建脚本vi /usr/local/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh
vi /usr/local/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh

#!/bin/bash
# This script run at 00:00

# The Nginx logs path
logs_path="/usr/local/nginx/logs/"

mkdir -p ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/
mv ${logs_path}access.log ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/access_$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y%m%d").log
kill -USR1 `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`

crontab -e
输入以下内容:

00 00 * * * /bin/bash  /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh
  1. 还没有评论
评论提交中, 请稍候...

留言

可以使用的标签: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>
Trackbacks & Pingbacks ( 0 )
  1. 还没有 trackbacks
Feed